The seeds consist of a hard, sharply pointed seed head which is barbed with backward-facing hairs and a long, twisted, corkscrew-like awn. Chilean needle grass is an extremely invasive grassy weed. The stem seeds are located at the nodes (swellings which give rise to leaves) of the flowering stem and are concealed by the leaf sheath which has been removed for the photo (Figure 7). For identification and advice on the control of populations in pasture situations or larger infestations contact Biosecurity Tasmania on 03 6165 3777. They are mostly 8 to 10mm long, with a 1mm long corona and a 60 to 90mm long awn which is twice bent, with 15 to 30mm to the first bend. Probably introduced in the 1930s and 1940s from South America where it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay, southern Brazil and Chile. Regularly monitor known Chilean needle grass infested areas. The persistent seed bank makes Chilean needle grass difficult to control. Probably introduced in the 1930s and 1940s from South America where it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Uruguay, southern Brazil and Chile. It can also cause seed contamination in sheep and lambs, which decreases meat yield and can cause animal health and welfare issues. Chilean needle grass spreads easily and causes destruc-tion in many ways. Chilean needle grass seeds are approximately 7 – 9 cm in length and light brown with a distinctive spear-like appearance. In Australia it occurs in temperate regions with annual rainfall of more than 500mm, mainly in pastures, on roadsides and public land. Aerial seeds; 2. The legal responsibilities of landholders and other stakeholders in dealing with Chilean needle grass are laid out in the, Use Table 1 (Zone A Municipalities) in the. Chilean needle grass is a declared noxious weed and is classed as a restricted weed in all Victorian catchments. The sharp seeds cause damage to the skin, fleece and eyes of stock. A Chilean needle grass adult plant is unpalatable to stock during the flowering period. The awns do not readily detach from the seed and they often twist together at maturity. The seeds consist of a hard, sharply pointed seed head which is barbed with backward-facing hairs and a long, twisted, corkscrew-like awn. Chilean Needle Grass, sometimes mistaken for native spear grass, is a perennial tussock-forming grass and is one of 32 declared Weeds of National Significance (WoNS) in Australia. Chilean Needle Grass is a WoNS because of its ability to spread … Chilean needle grass is an extremely invasive grassy weed. Summary. Chilean needlegrass (Nassella neesiana) is one of the Weeds of National Significance (WoNS) in Australia, and is regarded as an environmental weed in Victoria, south-eastern New South Wales, the ACT, Tasmania and South Australia. These 'stem seeds' are self-fertilised and account for about one-quarter of total seed production. A Weed of National Significance in Australia, Chilean needle grass is a vigorous competitor in agricultural, natural and urban environments. Control efforts should consider that: 1. adult plants are long-lived and very hardy 2. It is also a Weed of National Significance. Chilean needle grass flowers between November and April. The seeds of native Australian speargrasses (Austrostipa sp.) Chilean needle grass can be controlled with the application of a herbicide. Small infestations and isolated Chilean needle grass plants can be chipped out with a mattock preferably before the plants set seed. Named for its sharp, pointed seeds, it affects pastures and feedback form or by telephone. Seed spread is facilitated by the long, twisting awn and the sharply pointed seed head which together allow the seed to penetrate and 'burrow' into animal coats, fleece and clothing. It tolerates drought and heavy grazing, giving it great potential to spread and over-run existing vegetation. Seed is formed about one month after flowering and most seed has been dropped by February. Chilean needle grass is a master of disguise. Encourage the growth of competition in infested areas. It is spread by animals rather than wind and has a characteristic annular ring below the seed head. Chilean needle grass can also pose a threat to natural tussock and grassland ecosystems. As each square metre of infestation produces up to 12,000 seeds, it can quickly degrade native grasslands and pastures. The presence of Chilean needle grass may reduce land value. Chilean needle grass is a perennial (long-lived) tussock-forming grass growing to 1 metre in height. Normally 99% of the seeds in … It is of little nutritional value and in areas where an infestation exists tends to be a monoculture. The presence of Chilean needle grass has a devastating impact on agriculture. Floodwaters play a significant role in seed dispersal. Its sharp needle like tip can penetrate the skin and muscle of stock. Its flowers have a purple tinge and ripen into hard, sharp seeds with long twisting tails. Image credit: Kate Blood Chilean needlegrass is an unpalatable invasive grass, which severely reduces pasture productivity and invades native grassland. Chilean needle grass is a declared noxious weed throughout Vic. It is a serious weed of pastures and native grasslands. The seeds are spread by farm machinery, clothing or livestock, by road-side mowing and earthmoving equipment, and by floodwaters. Chilean needle grass panicle seed can be dispersed by water along creeks and drainage channels. It looks similar to many other grasses, both native and introduced, and can readily blend into the landscape. Chilean needle grass grows well in dry, hard, hill country areas with light soil, heavily grazed pasture and bare ground where there's less competition from desirable pasture plants. Chilean needle grass is a master of disguise. native grass (top illustration) to the Chilean needle grass (below illustration) leaves are 1-5mm wide and 30cm long; flower heads droop, 40cm long; seeds are 8-10mm long with a … Its leaves are bright green and harsh to the touch. The leaves are 1 to 5 mm wide, flat and strongly ribbed on their upper surface, with leaf edges that are rough to touch. Two types of seeds are produced by Chilean needle grass: Normal seeds (Figures 5 and 6) are produced at flowering. One of Australia's worst weeds, it is a major pest in Victoria and New South Wales and is also found in South Australia and Tasmania. Figure 4. Chilean needle grass flowers mainly from September to December but can flower year round. The seeds of Chilean needle grass are pale brown when mature, warty in texture, and hairless except along the midrib and near the callus (the base of the seed). Avoid the introduction of Chil ean needle grass. Questions concerning its content can be sent using the Chilean needle grass panicle seed is large and heavy and will not travel very far in the wind, maybe only a few metres. If you locate Chilean needle grass anywhere in Tasmania, or if you find a plant that you think could be Chilean needle grass, immediately contact Biosecurity Tasmania on 03 6165 3777. It is also a declared weed of National Significance. ilean needle grass is a perennial grass native to South America. Chilean needle grass is a Weed of National Significance and is considered to be one of the worst weeds in Australia because of its invasive nature, potential for spread, and economic and environmental impacts. The flowering seed heads are a distinctive purplish colour and the seeds are very sharp at the point. (outer casing of seed, the 'glume', removed to reveal detail.) It can reduce pasture productivity, contaminate crops and hay, and seeds can injure livestock, in particular sheep. 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