The average salary was $290 per month. Further southwest is Tyras/Akkerman/Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. In post-war years, Crimea thrived as a tourist destination, with new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists. In the cities of Yevpatoria and nearby townlet Molochnoye are tram systems. The report covers the period from 22 February 2014 to 12 September 2017. After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution and the flight of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych from Kyiv on 21 February 2014, Russian President, Vladimir Putin stated to colleagues that "we must start working on returning Crimea to Russia. General Assembly (73rd sess. [147], Following the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea 38 out of 46 the Ukrainian Orthodox Church – Kyiv Patriarchate parishes in Crimea ceased to exist, in three cases churches were seized by the Russian authorities. [142][143][144] This was part of the 800,000 Germans in Russia who were relocated within the Soviet Union during Stalinist times. The third region is made up of the alpine fold mountains of the south, which form three chains parallel to the southern coast. The number of Crimea Germans was 60,000 in 1939. Crimea in the Soviet Union and independent Ukraine, CRW Flags - Flag of Crimea Autonomous Republic, Ukraine, Crimea - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [31] While it was replaced with Krym (Ukrainian: Крим; Russian: Крым) in the Soviet Union and has had no official status since 1921, it is still used by some institutions in Crimea, such as the Taurida National University, the Tavriya Simferopol football club, or the Tavrida federal highway. GfK Ukraine. [84] Winds from the northwest bring warm and wet air from the Atlantic Ocean, causing precipitation during spring and summer. HRMMU has not been provided access to Crimea by Russian Federation authorities since its former Head of Mission accompanied the former Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights, Ivan Šimonović, on 21-22 … The North Crimean Canal now crosses it to bring water from the Dnieper. A total of more than 230,000 people – about a fifth of the total population of the Crimean Peninsula at that time – were deported, mainly to Uzbekistan. North of the peninsula the Dnieper turns westward and enters the Black Sea through the east–west Dnieper-Bug Estuary which also receives the Bug River. In 2013, Orthodox Christians made up 58% of the Crimean population, followed by Muslims (15%) and believers in God without religion (10%). Many of his paintings depict the Black Sea. [15] Koordinaten: 45 ° 18'N 34 ° 24'E  /  45,3 ° 34,4 ° E N  / Autonome Republik Krim . After the Russian annexation of Crimea in early 2014 and subsequent sanctions targeting Crimea, the tourist industry suffered major losses for two years. The highest proportion Russians in Autonomous Republic of Crimea - 1180.4 thousand persons, or 58.5% of total population. The peninsula is bounded on the S and W by the Black Sea. Seventy-five percent of the remaining area of Crimea consists of semiarid prairie lands, a southward continuation of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, which slope gently to the northwest from the foothills of the Crimean Mountains. Numerous Crimean Tatar villages, mosques, monasteries, and palaces of the Russian imperial family and nobles are found here, as well as picturesque ancient Greek and medieval castles. From 1853 to 1856, the peninsula was the site of the principal engagements of the Crimean War, a conflict fought between the Russian Empire and an alliance of France, Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Sardinia.[39]. [77], There are more than fifty salt lakes and salt pans on the peninsula, the largest of them is Lake Sasyk (Сасык) on the southwest coast; others include Aqtas, Koyashskoye, Kiyatskoe, Kirleutskoe, Kizil-Yar, Bakalskoe, and Donuzlav. По этим показателям Автономной Республики Крым занимает З - 4 места среди 27 регионов Украины. Crimea, Ukrainian Krym, also spelled Krim, autonomous republic, southern Ukraine. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. During World War II, Crimea was downgraded to the Crimean Oblast after its entire indigenous population, the Crimean Tatars, were deported to Central Asia, an act recognized as a genocide by Ukraine and 3 other countries. The politics of Crimea is that of the Republic of Crimea on one hand, and that of the federal city of Sevastopol on the other. The document was supported by 66 countries, 19 voted against, and 72 abstained. During the period between the last population censuses 1989 the number Russians has decreased by 11.6%. The natural vegetation consists of scrublands, woodlands, and forests, with a climate and vegetation similar to the Mediterranean Basin. [failed verification] On the north side of the peninsula is Chernomorskoe/Kalos Limen. Building and near start up are two combined cycle gas steam turbo thermal plants PGU, both 470 MW (116 167 MW GT, 235 MW block), build (plant) by TPE along others and turbines by Power Machines (UTZ KalugaTZ ? On Mar… A region and peninsula of southern Ukraine on the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. Road- and rail-bridges cross the northern part of Syvash. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Syvash in the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine. Under Russian rule it became a kind of riviera. [84] However, most of Crimea (88.5%) receives 300 to 500 millimetres (11.8 to 19.7 in) of precipitation per year. 11. [citation needed] The Mir payment system operated by the Central Bank of Russia operates in Crimea as well as Master Card and Visa. "Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club", "Judgement of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine on all-Crimean referendum", "The Crimea Crisis – An International Law Perspective", "Crimea referendum: Voters 'back Russia union, "Crimeans vote over 90 percent to quit Ukraine for Russia", The Tatars of Crimea: Return to the Homeland : Studies and Documents, Jews in Byzantium: Dialectics of Minority and Majority Cultures, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire", Ukraine and the west: hot air and hypocrisy, "Crimea Parliament Votes to Back Independence From Ukraine", "The Eye of the Whirlwind: Belarus and Ukraine", Regions Party gets 80 of 100 seats on Crimean parliament, "Ukraine 'preparing withdrawal of troops from Crimea, "Vladimir Putin describes secret meeting when Russia decided to seize Crimea", "Ukraine: UN condemns Crimea vote as IMF and US back loans", "U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid", "Vote by U.N. General Assembly Isolates Russia", "Red Square rally hails Vladimir Putin after Crimea accession", "General Assembly Adopts Resolution Calling upon States Not to Recognize Changes in Status of Crimea Region", "Russian troops firmly in control of Ukraine's gas extraction station in Kherson Oblast's Arabat Spit", "TASS: Russia – Russian ruble goes into official circulation in Crimea as of Monday", "Ukraine crisis: Crimea celebrates switch to Moscow time", "Russia Amends Constitution to Include Crimea, Sevastopol", "Crimea Adopts Ruble as Ukraine Continues Battling Rebels", "Putin Eliminates Ministry of Crimea, Region Fully Integrated into Russia, Russian Leaders Say", "New maps appear to show Crimea is drying up", "The High Price of Putin's Takeover of Crimea", "Crimea opens the largest and most beautiful airport in Russia's south", "Russia restores Crimea power supply after blackout", "Ukraine conflict: Russia completes Crimea security fence", "Map: Russian language dominant in Crimea", "Three canyons trekking (Chernorechensky Canyon, Uzunja Canyon and Grand Crimean Canyon). [69], Article 10 of the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea recognizes three official languages: Russian, Ukrainian and Crimean Tatar. The origin of the word Qırım is uncertain. Find the travel option that best suits you. [2] At 49.1%, turnout was slightly ahead of that for Russia as a whole which was only 47.8%. United States Agency for International Development. The report covers the period from 22 February 2014 to 12 September 2017. In the 8th century BCE, the Cimmerians migrated to the area in retreat from Scythian advances, of whom the latter also migrated to the region. In June 2018 there was a full electrical outage for all of Crimea, but the power grid company Rosseti reported to have fixed the outage in approximately one hour. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Crimean Tatars, a predominantly Muslim ethnic minority who in 2001 made up 12.1% of the population,[140] formed in Crimea in the late Middle Ages, after the Crimean Khanate had come into existence. The Crimean Mountains and the southern coast are part of the Crimean Submediterranean forest complex ecoregion. Lalawigan ang Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Rinuso: Автономная Республика Крым, Pinulongang Ukranyano: Автономна Республіка Крим, АР Крим) sa Okraniya. 2,363,000), c.10,000 sq mi (25,900 sq km), SE Europe, linked with the mainland by the Perekop Isthmus. The development of Crimea as a holiday destination began in the second half of the 19th century. The peninsula, then under the control of the Bosporan Kingdom, later became a client kingdom of the Roman Empire in 63 BCE. Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, Crimea became an autonomous republic within the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in the USSR. Besides the isthmus of Perekop, the peninsula is connected to the Kherson Oblast's Henichesk Raion by bridges over the narrow Chonhar and Henichesk straits and over Kerch Strait to the Krasnodar Krai. Some sources hold that the name of the capital was extended to the entire peninsula at some point during Ottoman suzerainty. [34] The nobility of the Nogay subgroup gained much of their revenue and political power from the slave trade. [33] During the period of the Crimean Khanate the many pre-Catherine peoples, including Crimean Greeks, Italians, Goths, Cumans, and Kipchkaks of Crimea merged into the Crimean Tatar nation's Tat, Yaliboylu, and Steppe (or Nogay) subgroups. [154] Due to Russia currently being suspended from all international athletic competitions Rebrik participates in tournaments as a "neutral" athlete.[155]. [127], According to the 2001 census, 77% of Crimean inhabitants named Russian as their native language; 11.4% – Crimean Tatar; and 10.1% – Ukrainian. United Russia is also the leading party in the Legislative Assembly of Sevastopol having won 22 of the 24 seats at the last election. In adopting the resolution “The problem of militarization of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol (Ukraine), as well as parts … Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. The main range of these mountains rises with extraordinary abruptness from the deep floor of the Black Sea to an altitude of 600–1,545 metres (1,969–5,069 ft), beginning at the southwest point of the peninsula, called Cape Fiolente [uk]. According to National Geographic, Crimea was among the top 20 travel destinations in 2013. Today. It is Autonomous Republic of Crimea. 1. Ukraine’s government in Kiev is only a few days old and seems to bein disarray. Crimea's infrastructure and manufacturing also developed, particularly around the sea ports at Kerch and Sevastopol and in the oblast's landlocked capital, Simferopol. Crimea became part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1921 as the Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which became part of the Soviet Union in 1922. Lalawigan ang Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Rinuso: Автономная Республика Крым, Pinulongang Ukranyano: Автономна Республіка Крим, АР Крим) sa Okraniya. [109][110] By 1969 it had an area of 3.2 km2 (1.2 sq mi), and consisted of 150 buildings. Why Did Russia Give Away Crimea Sixty Years Ago? After the annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, doubts have been expressed – from the Russian side by all means, but even by Western historians (Richard Sakwa, "Frontline Ukraine. pop. with dachas and health resorts. [42] At that time no vote or referendum took place, and Crimean population had no say in the transfer (also typical of other Soviet border changes). In May 2015, work began on a multibillion-dollar road-rail link (a pair of parallel bridges) across the Kerch Strait. Роздольне, Autonomous Republic of Crimea Ukraine As of Tue, Oct 13, 2020, 8:06 PM EDT. The first of these, consisting of the northern and central part of Crimea (which constitutes about three-fourths of the peninsula), is made up of a level plain that slopes down gently from south to north. A year later, Grand Prince Vladimir of Kiev accepted the hand of Emperor Basil II's sister Anna in marriage, and was baptized by the local Byzantine priest at Chersonesus, thus marking the entry of Russia into the Christian world.[32]. and ref? Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Crimea - Introduction. Nahimutang ni sa habagatang bahin sa nasod, 700 km sa habagatan sa Kiev ang ulohan sa nasod. In 1954, the Crimean Oblast was transferred to the authority of Soviet Ukraine. Autonomous Republic of Crimea may sa mosunod nga mga subdibisyon: [113][114] In general they prohibit the sale, supply, transfer, or export of goods and technology in several sectors, including services directly related to tourism and infrastructure. Januar 2014). The 1879 census for the Taurida Governorate reported a Jewish population of 4.20%, not including a Karaite population of 0.43%. From west to east are: Heracles Peninsula; Balaklava/Symbalon/Cembalo, a smaller natural harbor south of Sevastopol; Foros, the southernmost point; Alupka with the Vorontsov Palace (Alupka); Gaspra; Yalta; Gurzuf; Alushta. A 12-mile- (19-km-) long bridge spans the Kerch Strait, linking Crimea and Russia. Railroad lines running through Crimea include Armiansk—Kerch (with a link to Feodosia), and Melitopol—Sevastopol (with a link to Yevpatoria), connecting Crimea to the Ukrainian mainland. Omissions? Krim (Autonomous Republic of Crimea) Die Krim (, Krym; , Krym; ; in der Antike Tauris) ist eine Halbinsel im nördlichen Schwarzen Meer. [67], Russia provides electricity to Crimea via a cable beneath the Kerch Strait. [citation needed] It was the first official census in Crimea since a Ukrainian-held census in 2001. The coast then runs south to Sevastopol/Chersonesus, a good natural harbor, great naval base and the largest city on the peninsula. The second region, the Kerch Peninsula, thrusts eastward toward the Russian kray (territory) of Krasnodar and consists of low hills rich in iron ore. [64], Since 2014 the Russian government has invested heavily in the peninsula's infrastructure—repairing roads, modernizing hospitals and building the Crimean Bridge that links the peninsula to the Russian mainland. Historically, possession of the southern coast of Crimea was sought after by most empires of the greater region since antiquity (Roman, Byzantine, Ottoman, Russian, British and French, Nazi German, Soviet). Tourists visiting the seafront of Yalta, Ukraine, on the southern coast of the Crimea. It became a "health" destination for Soviet workers, and hundreds of thousands of Soviet tourists visited Crimea. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Crimean Tatars began to return to the region. The Belbek has the greatest average discharge at 2.16 cubic metres per second (76 cu ft/s). [65], In 2017 the Russian government also began modernising the Simferopol International Airport,[66] which opened its new terminal in April 2018. [50] On 15 March 2014, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine officially dissolved the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea, and, on 17 March 2014, one day before the Russian annexation of Crimea,[51] the State Council of Crimea was established in place of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea. [57][53] A range of international sanctions have remained in place against Russia and a number of named individuals as a result of the events of 2014. The center of the oblast was first in Karasubazar but was moved to Simferopol later in 1784. Crimea was governed as an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from the end of the Russian Civil War until 1945, when it lost its autonomous status, and was made an Oblast, essentially a region of Soviet Russia. There are 11 big cities and 44 small towns in Autonomous Republic of Crimea. In 1783, Crimea was annexed by the Russian Empire as the result of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). [85] Winters are mild at lower altitudes (in the foothills) and colder at higher altitudes. [84] It is characterized by diversity and the presence of microclimates. The eastern tip of the Crimean peninsula comprises the Kerch Peninsula, separated from Taman Peninsula on the Russian mainland by the Kerch Strait, which connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Azov, at a width of between 3–13 kilometres (1.9–8.1 mi). The terrain that lies south of the sheltering Crimean Mountain range is of an altogether different character. [107] The trolleybus line starts near Simferopol's Railway Station (in Soviet times it started near Simferopol International Airport) through the mountains to Alushta and on to Yalta. [53][54][55] Putin signed a treaty of accession with the self-declared Republic of Crimea, annexing it into the Russian Federation as two federal subjects: the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol. The flow of holidaymakers dropped 35 percent in the first half of 2014 over the same period of 2013. In February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that ousted the Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, Russia annexed Crimea after a military intervention by pro-Russian separatists and Russian Armed Forces. Simferopol, the administrative centre of the republic, is located in the foothills of the Crimean Mountains. [71] These mountains are backed by secondary parallel ranges. Numerous kurgans, or burial mounds, of the ancient Scythians are scattered across the Crimean steppes. In 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR from the Russian SFSR.[5]. Suggestions argued in various sources include: Other suggestions either unsupported or contradicted by sources, apparently based on similarity in sound, include: The spelling "Crimea" is the Italian form, i.e., la Crimea, since at least the 17th century[28] and the "Crimean peninsula" becomes current during the 18th century, gradually replacing the classical name of Tauric Peninsula in the course of the 19th century. The classical name Tauris or Taurica is from the Greek Ταυρική (Taurikḗ), after the peninsula's Scytho-Cimmerian inhabitants, the Tauri. 14,300 Greeks, 12,075 Bulgarians, and about 10,000 Armenians were also expelled. Thank you, Madam Chair, and a warm welcome to colleagues and friends who have gathered here today. Territory (thousand … Crisis in the Borderlands", 2015) – about the very legitimacy of the 1954 transition of Crimea to Ukraine; in the critics' view the transition contradicted even the Soviet law. Artek was considered to be a privilege for Soviet children during its existence, as well as for children from other communist countries. The last election of the Verkhovna Rada of Crimea took place on 31 October 2010 and was won by the Party of Regions. During WWII, they were forcibly deported on the orders of Stalin, as they were regarded as a potential "fifth column". First Deputy Foreign Minister of Ukraine Emine Dzheppar has called on the European Union to expand sanctions against the Russian Federation in response to the organization of illegal "elections" in the temporarily occupied territories of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea … Template parameters (coordinates of … Crimea itself comprises three regions. [88], The nearby Dnieper River is a major waterway and transportation route that crosses the European continent from north to south and ultimately links the Black Sea with the Baltic Sea, of strategic importance since the historical trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. Between Crimea and the mainland to the north lies Syvash (“Putrid Sea”), a network of shallow inlets that is separated from the Sea of Azov by the Arabat Spit, a 70-mile- (113-km-) long sandbar along the eastern shore of Crimea. Define Autonomous Republic of Crimea. With them, control of the peninsula changed in 1238, as all but the Perateia of Crimea was incorporated into the territory of the Golden Horde throughout the 14th century CE. [148] Notwithstanding the annexation the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) kept control of its eparchies in Crimea.[149]. Unlike most of the young pioneer camps, Artek was an all-year camp, due to the warm climate. 13% Since last week. [84] The western parts of the Crimean mountains receive more than 1,000 millimetres (39.4 in) of precipitation per year. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Most towns are engaged in processing farm produce, especially wine making. [84] The Crimean coast is shielded from cold air masses coming from the north and, as a result, has milder winters. Only as the Soviet Union collapsed were they allowed to return. Esteban Rivera, 13 June 2018 (2001) 2,033,736; (2013 est.) Despite calls from local Crimean Tatars for a boycott of the elections, turnout was over 53% which compared well with elections in other regions of Russia. The Tatars were accused of collaboration by Stalin and deported en masse to Central Asia and Siberia in 1944. Deaths 5,122. [84] The plains usually receive 300 to 400 millimetres (11.8 to 15.7 in) of precipitation per year, increasing to 560 millimetres (22.0 in) in the southern coast at sea level. with funding from the. Synonyms for Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Free Thesaurus. [84] Cool-season temperatures average around 7 °C (44.6 °F) and it is rare for the weather to drop below freezing except in the mountains, where there is usually snow. [141] According to the 2001 Ukrainian population census, 58% of the population of Crimea are ethnic Russians and 24% are ethnic Ukrainians.[140]. The peninsula is connected on the northwest to the mainland by the Perekop Isthmus, a 5-mile- (8-km-) wide strip of land that has been the site of numerous battles for the control of Crimea. Autonomous Republic Crimea as well.” So here they are, the facts: 1) A Russian naval presence in Crimea dates to 1783 when the port city of Sevastopol was founded by Russian Prince Grigory Potemkin. It is claimed by Ukraine and recognized as Ukrainian by most other countries, although it has been administered by Russia following its annexation to the country in 2014. Baltic Surveys Ltd. / The Gallup Organization. Latter a small group centered at Yevpatoria ) this makes for significant annual in! June 2018 annual weather Averages in Autonomous Republic of Crimea came third fourth... With new attractions and sanatoriums for tourists, especially wine making kind of riviera (. 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[ 70 ] the southern.