The Applied Ethnography Program of the National Park Service works to formulate policy, conduct research, consult with stakeholder groups, and manage cultural registries. What is the opposite of ethnography?. Ethnography, in the simplest sense, refers to the writing or making of an abstract picture of a group of people. The Race Relations Acts of 1965, 1968 and 1976 all used the term ‘race or ethnic or national origins’ and this (or similar) An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group. (2010). Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures. "A treasure (from the Greek ‘thesauros’, treasure, store or storehouse) trove (past participle of an Anglo-Norman verb meaning ‘to find’) of verbal wonders" – William Hartston, Daily Express Combining both accessibility and authority, The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins describes the origins and development of over 3,000 words and phrases in the English language. Learn more. Writing culture: the poetics and politics of ethnography. This is called fieldwork. The key word here is fieldwork. Westbrook, David A. Navigators of the Contemporary: Why Ethnography Matters. The ethnographer produces the participant's views through closely edited quotations and has the final word on how the culture is to be interpreted and presented. 2. On the origin of species by means of natural selection.  The code of ethics recognizes that sometimes very close and personal relationship can sometimes develop from doing ethnographic work. ETHNOGRAPHY OF SPEAKING AND ETHNOMETHODOLOGY Different ways of using language in different societies -- study the examples on pp. Critical researchers typically are politically minded people who look to take a stand of opposition to inequality and domination. Fine is not necessarily casting blame at ethnographic researchers but tries to show that researchers often make idealized ethical claims and standards which are inherently based on partial truths and self-deceptions. It is important to recognise that  Often this type of research results in a case study or field study such as an analysis of speech patterns at a protest rally, or the way firemen communicate during "down time" at a fire station. That is why Ethnography is also known as "culture writing". 10, 14, 1-13. Word origin of “ethnography” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com Atkinson, Paul. A student of ethnography might live in Moscow to gather information about Russian marriage practices. In this sense, Tony Salvador, Genevieve Bell, and Ken Anderson describe design ethnography as being "a way of understanding the particulars of daily life in such a way as to increase the success probability of a new product or service or, more appropriately, to reduce the probability of failure specifically due to a lack of understanding of the basic behaviors and frameworks of consumers. There are no categorical antonyms for this word. Preece, J., Sharp, H., & Rogers, Y. New York: Berghahn Books. ethnography (countable and uncountable, plural ethnographies) ( anthropology ) The branch of anthropology that scientifically describes specific human cultures and societies . The results are products and services that respond to consumers' unmet needs. Rubin, R. B., Rubin, A. M., and Piele, L. J. Information and translations of ethnography in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Higginbottom GMA, Pillay J, Boadu NY (2013). Determine if ethnography is the most appropriate design to use to study the research problem. Cultural studies, Occupational Therapy, (European) ethnology, sociology, economics, social work, education, design, psychology, computer science, human factors and ergonomics, ethnomusicology, folkloristics, religious studies, geography, history, linguistics, communication studies, performance studies, advertising, accounting research, nursing, urban planning, usability, political science, social movement, and criminology are other fields which have made use of ethnography. Springer, Singapore). Darwin, C. 1972 . All being people she wished to study for her anthropological data. What does ethnography mean? The image is the projection that an individual puts on an object or abstract idea. 1786, earlier neger (1568, Scottish and northern England dialect), negar, negur, from French nègre, from Spanish negro (see Negro).From the earliest usage it was "the term that carries with it all the obloquy and contempt and rejection which whites have inflicted on blacks" … Ethnography is a qualitative research method which involves a detailed study of a particular cultural group. (1986). Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. The analyst will give a detailed report of the everyday life of the individuals under study. 1990. An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of humans based on people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. The second of these, however, is utterly compelling reading, a great piece of ethnography from the projects of Chicago and in the life of the Black Kings street gang. Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford 23(1), 17-36. This data had not been coded at the point of data collection in terms of a closed set of analytic categories. Modern developments in computing power and AI have enabled higher efficiencies in ethnographic data collection via multimedia and computational analysis using machine learning. In his book, ‘The Natural History of Man’ (1943), J. C. Pritchard distinguished the descriptive study of Ethnography from the history of nations he termed as Ethnology. Anthropology is an academic discipline that constructs its intellectual imaginings upon empirical-based knowledge about human worlds. It is conducted so as to yield the fullest possible portrait of the group under study. Ethnographic Research: the systematic, rigorous investigation of a situation or problem in order to generate new knowledge or validate existing knowledge. By studying the culture between the different Pueblo and Plain Indians, She discovered the culture isomorphism that would be considered her personalized unique approach to the study of anthropology using ethnographic techniques. (Dewan M. (2018) Understanding Ethnography: An 'Exotic' Ethnographer's Perspective. You CAN learn your way around a culture and be comfortable there 4. Meaning of ethnography with illustrations and photos. Famous examples include Tristes Tropiques (1955) by Lévi-Strauss, The High Valley by Kenneth Read, and The Savage and the Innocent by David Maybury-Lewis, as well as the mildly fictionalized Return to Laughter by Elenore Smith Bowen (Laura Bohannan). It is conducted by a researcher whose interpretations and findings may be expounded on by the study's participants while conclusions are still in the process of formulation. The experience set the idea for her to produce her theory of "culture is personality writ large" (modell, 1988). The meaning of ethnography has evolved since its origin in the early 1900s. A typical ethnography attempts to be holistic and typically follows an outline to include a brief history of the culture in question, an analysis of the physical geography or terrain inhabited by the people under study, including climate, and often including what biological anthropologists call habitat. Writing Culture helped bring changes to both anthropology and ethnography often described in terms of being 'postmodern,' 'reflexive,' 'literary,' 'deconstructive,' or 'poststructural' in nature, in that the text helped to highlight the various epistemic and political predicaments that many practitioners saw as plaguing ethnographic representations and practices. It might also advocate for the needs of the group or suggest changes in society. (2009). This type of ethnography is not so typical as ethnography recorded by pen and pencil. Du Bois, Street Corner Society by William Foote Whyte and Black Metropolis by St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton, Jr.. Major influences on this development were anthropologist Lloyd Warner, on the Chicago sociology faculty, and to Robert Park's experience as a journalist. Anthropology as Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences. The term Ethnography is Greek in origin. Businesses, too, have found ethnographers helpful for understanding how people use products and services. The exact time frame can vary from several weeks to a year or more. In later Welsh legends he is portrayed as a wizard and prophet, or as a companion of King Arthur. Digital ethnography allows for a lot more opportunities to look at different cultures and societies. Reflexivity refers to the researcher's aim "to explore the ways in which [the] researcher's involvement with a particular study influences, acts upon and informs such research". ethnography definition: 1. a scientific description of the culture of a society by someone who has lived in it, or a book…. Ethnography, the writing of culture, traces its origins to ancient Greece. The typical ethnography is a document written about a particular people, almost always based at least in part on emic views of where the culture begins and ends. Symbolic interactionism developed from the same tradition and yielded such sociological ethnographies as Shared Fantasy by Gary Alan Fine, which documents the early history of fantasy role-playing games. "The Observant Ethnographer" – Readers of ethnography are often led to assume the report of a scene is complete – that little of importance was missed. "Teaching" - When teaching the discipline of anthropology, instructors are required to inform students of the ethical dilemmas of conducting ethnographies and field work. It's one of the best ways to identify areas of friction and improve overall user experience. Thus, ethnography may be defined as both a qualitative research process or method (one conducts an ethnography) and product (the outcome of this process is an ethnography) whose aim is cultural interpretation. Perhaps how the group works need to be described, or a critical ethnography can expose issues such as power, hegemony, and advocacy for certain groups (Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 95), Should collect information in the context or setting where the group works or lives. (Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 96). Arnal, Del Rincón and Latorre . The ethnographer also uses standard categories for cultural description (e.g., family life, communication network). The ethnographer stays as omniscient correspondent of actualities out of sight. Herodotus, who is also known as the father of history, traveled from one culture to another to document the traditions and sociopolitical practices among people of the ancient world during the third century B.C. As ethnography developed, anthropologists grew more interested in less tangible aspects of culture, such as values, worldview and what Clifford Geertz termed the "ethos" of the culture. The important components of a critical ethnographer are to incorporate a value-laden introduction, empower people by giving them more authority, challenging the status quo, and addressing concerns about power and control. Gerhard Friedrich Müller developed the concept of ethnography as a separate discipline whilst participating in the Second Kamchatka Expedition (1733–43) as a professor of history and geography.  August Ludwig von Schlözer and Christoph Wilhelm Jacob Gatterer of the University of Göttingen introduced the term into the academic discourse in an attempt to reform the contemporary understanding of world history.. No consensus has been developed on evaluation standards, but Richardson (2000, p. 254) provides five criteria that ethnographers might find helpful. For what its translation is"I write of the tribe"or"description of the peoples".  Despite these attempts of reflexivity, no researcher can be totally unbiased. Ethnography is a research method central to knowing the world from the standpoint of its social relations. They include Living and Dying at Murray Manor, which describes the social worlds of a nursing home; Describing Care: Image and Practice in Rehabilitation, which documents the social organization of patient subjectivity in a physical rehabilitation hospital; Caretakers: Treating Emotionally Disturbed Children, which features the social construction of behavioral disorders in children; and Oldtimers and Alzheimer's: The Descriptive Organization of Senility, which describes how the Alzheimer's disease movement constructed a new subjectivity of senile dementia and how that is organized in a geriatric hospital. Meaning of ethnography. BMC Nursing. "Conducting Research" - When conducting research Anthropologists need to be aware of the potential impacts of the research on the people and animals they study. A student of ethnography might live in Moscow to gather information about Russian marriage practices. In the past, kinship charts were commonly used to "discover logical patterns and social structure in non-Western societies". WordSense.eu Dictionary: ethnography - meaning, definition, synonyms, translations, origin. The aborigine's autobiography was also an autoethnography. In reality, an ethnographer will always miss some aspect because of lacking omniscience.  In contrast with ethnology, ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view of the subject of the study. According to Dewan (2018), the researcher is not looking for generalizing the findings; rather, they are considering it in reference to the context of the situation. Perspectives on Asian Tourism. "The Unobtrusive Ethnographer" – As a "participant" in the scene, the researcher will always have an effect on the communication that occurs within the research site. (2010) examine the ontological and epistemological presuppositions underlying ethnography. Erickson, Ken C. and Donald D. Stull (1997). origin: perceptions of primary health care service. Learn more about the word "ethnography", its origin, alternative forms, and usage from Wiktionary. In: Mura P., Khoo-Lattimore C. (eds) Asian Qualitative Research in Tourism. The product of this is mainly verbal explanations, where statistical analysis and quantification play a subordinate role. 242-245: !Kung Western Apache Puliyanese Aritama Danes Roti Antigua Subanun etc. "The kindly ethnographer" – Most ethnographers present themselves as being more sympathetic than they are, which aids in the research process, but is also deceptive. Data analysis involves interpretation of the functions and meanings of human actions. Ethnographic studies need to be evaluated in some manner. Another approach to ethnography in sociology comes in the form of institutional ethnography, developed by Dorothy E. Smith for studying the social relations which structure people's everyday lives. Ethnographic work in communication studies seeks to explain "how" ordinary methods/practices/performances construct the ordinary actions used by ordinary people in the accomplishments of their identities. Dealing with the origin of words and their sense development, thus illustrating the history of civilization and culture. That is, the ethnographer cannot escape the personal viewpoint in creating an ethnographic account, thus making any claims of objective neutrality highly problematic, if not altogether impossible. The ethnographic method is used across a range of different disciplines, primarily by anthropologists but also occasionally by sociologists. We navigate cities of relationships 3. This group can also be a group that has been marginalized by society. Ethnography is defined as both a social science research method and its final written product. ethnography synonyms, ethnography pronunciation, ethnography translation, English dictionary definition of ethnography. Often the method of observation involves PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION.The ethnographic method (sometimes also referred to as FIELDWORK) is a basic method in SOCIAL ANTHROPOLOGY, It is also a method used in some areas of sociology, e.g. The identity that we present to subjects is different from who we are in other circumstances. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The ethnographer goes beyond reporting events and details of experience. (Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design, 93), Critical ethnography is a kind of ethnographic research in which the creators advocate for the liberation of groups which are marginalized in society. Berkeley: University of California Press. Once largely the purview of anthropologists and sociologists, researchers in other disciplines have taken up ethnographic methods to delve into a variety of social groups and situations. In his fieldwork, Geertz used elements of a phenomenological approach, tracing not just the doings of people, but the cultural elements themselves. Emphasizes on exploring social phenomena rather than testing hypotheses. If "ethnography" is the only way by which literature and literary criticism can be incorporated into a college curriculum or into academic scholarship, best to leave them be.Literary Study. ethnography - WordReference English dictionary, questions, discussion and forums. The word can thus be said to have a "double meaning," which partly depends on whether it is used as a count noun or uncountably.  The Association acknowledges that the code is limited in scope; ethnographic work can sometimes be multidisciplinary, and anthropologists need to be familiar with ethics and perspectives of other disciplines as well. Traditionally, the ethnographer focuses attention on a community, selecting knowledgeable informants who know the activities of the community well. One example of an image is how an individual views a novel after completing it. For example, digital ethnographers would use social media platforms such as Twitter or blogs so that people's interactions and behaviors can be studied. it is conducted by a researcher who intends to interact with people they are studying for an extended period of time. "The Fair Ethnographer" – Fine claims that objectivity is an illusion and that everything in ethnography is known from a perspective. Gubrium, Jaber F. and James A. Holstein. "Analyzing Field Reality." 1990. As a technique for gathering data on human behavior, "ethnography" has become very popular in a wide range of disciplines and fields. Origin is in offline mode. 0; noun ethnography the branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of individual human societies 0 Participant observation of veteran bikers", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ethnography&oldid=991296981, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from February 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with style issues from February 2020, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles needing additional references from April 2015, CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Ethnographies focus on describing the culture of a group in very detailed and complex manner. Unpublished PhD Thesis Higginbottom GMA (2011) The transitioning experiences of internationally educat ed nurses into a Canadian health care system: a focused ethnography. 1; uncountable noun ethnography Ethnography is the branch of anthropology in which different cultures are studied and described. The point of view shown in the frame of the research is that as the existence of the Wiley. Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures.  In 2009 the Association adopted a code of ethics, stating: Anthropologists have "moral obligations as members of other groups, such as the family, religion, and community, as well as the profession". That is why Ethnography is also known as "culture writing". Beginning in the 1960s and 1970s, ethnographic research methods began to be widely used by communication scholars. Heath, Shirley Brice & Brian Street, with Molly Mills. The typical ethnography is a holistic study and so includes a brief history, and an analysis of the terrain, the climate, and the habitat. Much debate surrounding the issue of ethics arose following revelations about how the ethnographer Napoleon Chagnon conducted his ethnographic fieldwork with the Yanomani people of South America. A strong rationale for the use of ‘mixed origin’ is its partial alignment with the popular companion term ‘ethnic origin’ and the use of ‘origin’ in the law. The word 'ethnography' is derived from the Greek ἔθνος (ethnos), meaning "a company, later a people, nation" and -graphy, meaning "writing". While, traditionally, ethnography has relied on the physical presence of the researcher in a setting, there is research using the label that has relied on interviews or documents, sometimes to investigate events in the past such as the NASA Challenger disaster. Word origin of “ethnography” – Online Etymology Dictionary: etymonline.com Atkinson, Paul. The image presents the perspective, experiences, and influences of an individual as a single entity and in consequence, the individual will always contain this image in the group under study. It is multifactorial. "The friendly ethnographer" – Ethnographers operate under the assumption that they should not dislike anyone. Ethnographic fieldwork is the method that defines social anthropology. the place of origin of the Oromo is controversial. Folk notions of botany and zoology are presented as ethnobotany and ethnozoology alongside references from the formal sciences. Ethnography is the practice developed in order to bring about that knowledge according to certain methodological principles, the most important of which is participant-observation ethno… "The Candid Ethnographer" – Where the researcher personally situates within the ethnography is ethically problematic. The American anthropologist George Spindler was a pioneer in applying the ethnographic methodology to the classroom. It is holistic. noun ethnography The scientific description of the customs of individual peoples and cultures. Other notable ethnographies include Paul Willis's Learning to Labour, on working class youth; the work of Elijah Anderson, Mitchell Duneier, and Loïc Wacquant on black America, and Lai Olurode's Glimpses of Madrasa From Africa. Origin v10.4.74-2494-cbc73331. ‘The ethnography of the first part of the book, while a contribution in its own right, provides background for the second part.’ ‘Her ethnography is the result of more than a decade of fieldwork done in the 1990s in one of Rio's urban shantytown communities.’ Ethnographic data to answer academic questions about how to report fairness in findings who look to take stand... Order to make the data collection is that of the native and became... ] there is an illusion that field notes are data and reflect what `` really happened... 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